Topic outline

  • European Countries


    1. It is necessary to take into account that, although it is a fairly restrictive regulation, it will undoubtedly provide confidence to both the end user and the consumer; although it is also true that this greater security will require greater technological investment, since the reliability of the reclamation process will be essential;
    2. If we want to move forward and implement or adapt technologies capable of responding to the required water qualities, it is necessary to  promote R+D+I and, without a doubt, financing in the sector;
    3. It is necessary to draw lessons and share experiences to face other challenges, such as the implementation of the “Risk Management Plan” or the promotion of collaboration, interaction and understanding between the different stakeholders involved;
    4. The correct water reclamation must start from correct prior depuration. In this sense, the involvement of municipalities, control of discharges and control at source are fundamental issues;
    5. Collaboration and administrative simplification are essential for the sector and for the implementation of the new EU Regulation;
    6. Although the use of non-conventional water resources is essential to address water scarcity, it is necessary to continue working and making progress in optimizing water demand in irrigation;
    7. It is essential to carry out good water governance in relation to the different offers (fresh water, underground, desalinated, runoff, reclaimed water), which will imply an ordering of the different uses as well as the responsibilities of the stakeholders involved. Likewise, it is necessary to advance a comprehensive/holistic vision of water;
    8. Within the framework of wastewater depuration, another challenge has been posed with the updating of the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (91/271) in which the European Union is currently immersed, not only for what it represents for the wastewater depuration, but for its connectivity with the water reclamation and reuse in agriculture. The modifications that are being proposed will also pose important challenges at the administrative, regulatory-legislative and technological levels; but these modifications must allow continued progress in the water reclamation and reuse in a priority sector, not only in Spain but throughout the Mediterranean area, such as agriculture.
    1. Innovation, research and development as key points in order to avoid the gap between the end of research projects and the development of products or solutions capable of reaching the market. Innovation must be developed in collaboration with companies from the conception stages of the research project proposals;
    2. The necessity to capitalise on the results of research and the transfer of technology to the market, valorising the asset through start-ups or other intermediary figures to obtain products that can be placed on the market (industrialisation of results through patents). The research and innovation ecosystem is aimed at this end: a proactive, interactive and multi-sectoral structure that becomes a system. It is necessary to change the paradigm of knowledge transfer into a constant and penetrating action of valorisation of research results and intellectual assets;
    3. Need to invest in infrastructures and the removal of bureaucratic or regulatory barriers: no market is divorced from the general operating context and the limits to the dissemination of valid research results often come from the too costly effort of 'tailoring' adaptation to infrastructural, regulatory and bureaucratic rigidities. New industrial-type governance and an extensive restructuring of existing infrastructures at the regional and national level are preconditions for achieving the levels of economic efficiency necessary for the development of new industries or the application of new technologies;
    4. There are no 'general' solutions, it is necessary to use several solutions and several water sources at the same time: invest in a broad and diversified portfolio of solutions, offers possibilities to create robust resilience linked to widespread spatial solutions and not simply tied to one major work or technology. It is necessary to increase the quantity and quality of data and guarantee a robust information flow capable of reaching all players in the complex water supply chain, thus avoiding duplication of effort and costs.
    5. It is necessary to decide and operate on the basis of scenarios and results of risk modelling and impacts on the different productive, social and environmental sectors, taking into account the costs/opportunities of NCW integrated to the use of conventional water considering the ecosystem benefits, offered by the environment to productive activities, as well as also those produced by sustainable production cycles while including those variables, which are not part of the simple cost/benefit calculation such as environmental accounting, proper socio-economic analysis and assessment of the resilience margins of all sectors, including the ecosystem itself.

  • MENA countries

    1. Take advantage of lessons learnt during the implementation of research and cooperation projects framing good practices to support authorities involved in water management.
    2. Deal with all different dimensions of NCW treatment and reuse (technical, institutional and governance) by adopting sustainable interdisciplinary approaches, involving different actors and stakeholders and focusing on policies that account for social, behavioral, political and economic constraints;
    3. Ensure that the countries use reclaimed wastewater guidelines and establish proper local standards as regulation should not be a copy but an adaptation to the local context;
    4. Build trust between public and governments regarding the collection, treatment and the use of reclaimed water;
    5. Move from the concept of water supply to that of demand management giving an economic value to water: water scarcity issue is not yet perceived by people.


    1. Policy Advocacy and Implementation: i) Encourage national policymakers in Jordan, Palestine, Tunisia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Egypt, and Malta to integrate the findings and recommendations from the MENAWARA project into their agricultural policies. ii) Promote the establishment of policies that incentivize and support the adoption of innovative irrigation methodologies, such as sub-surface irrigation, to enhance water efficiency.
    2. Capacity Building: i) Advocate for continuous training programs for farmers, agronomists, and water irrigation engineers to ensure they are well-versed in the latest technologies and approaches presented by the MENAWARA project; ii) Establish knowledge-sharing platforms, workshops, and training sessions to disseminate successful practices and experiences among agricultural communities.
    3. Research and Development: i) Allocate resources for ongoing research and development initiatives, building on the success of the MENAWARA project, to further enhance irrigation efficiency and productivity; ii) Foster collaboration between research institutions and agricultural communities to address emerging challenges and identify new opportunities for sustainable water use in agriculture.
    4. International Collaboration: i) Strengthen collaboration between Mediterranean countries to create a network for sharing best practices, scientific findings, and innovative solutions in the realm of non-conventional water use; ii) Facilitate joint projects and initiatives that leverage the expertise of each participating country, reinforcing a united front against water scarcity challenges.
    5. Public Awareness and Engagement: : i) Launch public awareness campaigns to inform farmers, civil society, and the broader public about the benefits of non-conventional water use in agriculture; ii) Involve farmers and local communities in decision-making processes to ensure their active participation and ownership of sustainable water use practices.
    6. Scaling Up Success Stories: i) Identify successful case studies and best practices showcased during the roundtable and field visits and work towards scaling up these initiatives across different regions; ii) Encourage replication of successful models, with a focus on adapting strategies to local contexts and conditions.
    7. Continued Monitoring and Evaluation: i) Establish a robust monitoring and evaluation framework to track the long-term impact of non-conventional water utilization on agricultural productivity, environmental conservation, and community well-being; Regularly assess and update strategies based on the evolving needs and challenges faced by the agricultural sector.


    1. Further roundtable discussions should be organised involving public, private stakeholders and ngo’s on ensuring the financial sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (wwtp) as it is a major bottleneck for wwtps in Palestine, including how national institutions can assist local authorities realising cost-recovery, polluter pays principle engaging sector;
    2. Roles and responsibilities of both local and national actors in TWW should be further clarified. As there are health risks associated with the reuse of TWW, good coordination, planning and control are important;
    3. The Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) or regional authorities should facilitate and support local councils to set up agreements with national authorities on monitoring of the processes of waste water treatment.
    4. Ministry of Agriculture and PWA should share the masterplan for TWW reuse timely, so that, in future projects, this Masterplan indicating priority areas in Palestine can also be considered by other development actors.
    5. Further raising awareness on TWW reuse in Palestine and on the safety and strict quality standard applied by PWA, MoA.
    6. Local authorities should take measures to ensure knowledge transfer when key staff retires or relocates to ensure that knowledge on WWTP and TWW gained through years of experience is maintained and built upon.
    7. A discussion and vision on centralization versus decentralization of wastewater treatment for reuse involving research institutes, private, NGOs and public actors in the field of sanitation for reuse should be organized taking into consideration more nature-based solutions for treatment.
    8. Capitalizing on existing TWW projects, including Beit Dajan, should be encouraged by National authorities as well as exchange between actors in the sector. The concept of living lab applied in MENAWARA should be further enhanced by engaging research institutes, students and community members, to foster new ideas able to ensure project sustainability.


    1. Capitalizing the results of the MENAWARA project by carrying out similar projects or agricultural development programs focusing on 1) the improvement of treated wastewater quality, 2) the monitoring of the quality carrying out analysis for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters, support for operators of wastewater treatment plants, extension workers and farmers through training sessions and awareness-raising actions for the sustainability of the use of TWW;
    2. Keep on carrying out the actions carried out by MENAWARA with further actions to ensure sustainability;
    3. Strengthening partnerships with research institutes to promote the use of TWW;
    4. Strengthening the legislative and regulatory framework in order to facilitate procedures for the reuse of TWW in the agricultural sector;
    5. Encouraging the TWW storage among farmers by installing storage basins at the field level;
    6. Promoting the creation of Agricultural development groups (GDA) in order to strengthen farmers’ positions;
    7. Strengthening the policy of the circular economy and the implementation of integrated projects based on the reuse of TWW in the agricultural sector;
    8. Keeping and strengthen the link between the different partners involved in the MENAWARA project in the form of a consortium that could bring together other organizations, NGOs and establishments.

  • Topic 3

  • Topic 4

  • Topic 5